Conspiracy theories about Christianity: #7: Did the Council of Nicaea invent the Trinity in the year 325?”

A great amount of information about the Council of Nicaea (325) is easily available on the Internet and in many books. Given that fact, it is surprising that conspiracy theories about the Council continue to be shared and believed. Dan Brown’s character Teabing manages to make more false statements in one page of The Da Vinci Code than I have included in entire true-false quizzes used in my college history classes.

The Roman Emperor Constantine had a vision which led him to become a Christian. He delayed his baptism until the day of his death, not because he was insincere in his faith, but because he wrongly thought that Baptism would remove only past sins and was therefore best delayed to the end of life. Constantine made many public confessions of his Christian faith. He was well-informed about the doctrines of Christianity, and he supported all the teachings of the Church.

Constantine was appalled to learn of a controversy among Christians in Egypt over the divinity of Christ. Arius held that Jesus was created by God the Father and therefore a lesser being to the Father. Athanasius held that the Father and the Son were equally God with the Holy Spirit, all three eternal and unchanging and divine, equal in power and authority and glory. Arius had a pleasant personality and good rapport with other Christians; Athanasius was a bit more unlikeable, but he happened to be right. To clear the air of this controversy, Constantine summoned a council to meet in the town of Nicaea. He invited all the bishops of Christianity to attend. At least 250 arrived. (The traditional number is 318, but 250 is the lowest estimate.) The Emperor, the bishops, and their assistants prayed, studied the Bible, and discussed what it says about the Father and the Son. The Council wrote a document, the Nicene Creed, which was approved by all but two of the bishops in attendance.

The Council did coin new words to summarize what the Bible says about God, but it was determined to stick to what the Bible teaches and not to create new doctrine. The most controversial word at the time was not Trinity (meaning three in one), but homoousios, translated into English as “being of one substance.” The entire phrase that contains that word identifies Jesus as “God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father.”

Was this idea new? Even the Torah identifies the Trinity, consisting of the Lord, the Angel of the Lord, and the Spirit of the Lord. In passages such as Genesis 22 and Exodus 3, the Angel of the Lord speaks of God in both the third person (he, him) and the first person (I, me). In the creation account at the beginning of Genesis, God speaks to himself in the plural (“Let us make man in our image”). Many messianic passages in the Hebrew Bible identify the Messiah as God or as the Son of God. (Psalm 2 is a good example of this.)

The New Testament is not shy about declaring Jesus to be the Son of God. Paul uses that phrase about Jesus many times (Romans 1:4, for example). John beings his Gospel by writing, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” Later he quotes Jesus as saying, “Whoever has seen me has seen the Father… I am in the Father and the Father is in me…” (John 14:9-10) Much of the letter to the Hebrews was written to assert the equality of Jesus with his Father.

Why, then, does Jesus say, “the Father is greater than I”?(John 14:28)? The most succinct explanation comes from another document, written well after the Council of Nicaea. Jesus is equal to the Father in regard to his divinity and less than the Father in regard to his humanity. It took several Church Councils to sort through the language needed to talk about Jesus. He is one Person but has two natures—a divine nature and a human nature. The human nature is part of creation and subject to the will of the Father, but the divine nature is equal to the Father in every way. Because Jesus is without sin, his two natures are in complete agreement with each other.

“God is love” (I John 4:16). A Unitarian God can only possess love; He/She/It could never be love. But the Trinitarian God has love as the very basis of his being. The Father loves the Son and the Spirit. The Son loves the Father and the Spirit. The Spirit loves the Father and the Son. This God who is love created the universe as a gift of love. Into this universe he placed individuals whom he could love; individuals who could love him and could love each other. True love makes one vulnerable. By giving humans the freedom to love, God also allowed the freedom not to love. Humans have taken that path. But the love of God has not failed. God the Son entered creation to be a Ransom; to pay the price that frees humans from their failure to love. The Son became human—the Father and the Spirit did not. The Son was required to obey the commands of his Father, and he did so. The Son exchanged places with each human, clothing sinful humans in his perfection while taking the punishment sinful humans deserve on himself. The Son died on a Roman cross—the Father and the Spirit did not die. Human death separates the spirit from the body. The body of Jesus was buried; his spirit was in the hands of his Father in Paradise. But that spirit returned to his body on Easter, promising a resurrection to eternal life for all who trust in him.

The Council of Nicaea invented none of these teachings. They found all of them in the Bible and they summarized them in the Nicene Creed. Eighteen centuries later, Christians still use that Creed to summarize what we believe. We believe it because God said it through his prophets and apostles. The message has never changed. It will never change. The Word of God stands forever. J.

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I know something God doesn’t know

God is omniscient. That means that he knows everything. God is also omnipotent—that is, almighty. There is nothing God cannot do. God is omnipresent. If any place exists, God is there. God is holy, just, and perfectly good. All goodness is measured by God’s will—if he approves of something, it is good; if he disapproves, it is not good.

People sometimes question God’s omnipotence with logical puzzles. They ask, “Can God create a stone so heavy that he cannot lift it?” or, “Can God make a circle that is also a square?” Since God, by his very nature, violates the laws of mathematics, I would not consider him incapable of doing things that are logically impossible. For God is three Persons—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit—and yet he is one God, not three gods. The Son of Man became human. Jesus Christ is one hundred percent God and one hundred percent human, yet he is one Being, not two beings.

The Bible does mention one thing that God cannot do. God cannot lie (Titus 1:2). He cannot lie, not only because he is so good, but also because he is so powerful. When God speaks, what he says is invariably true, because nothing in the universe can resist his will. God says, “Let there be light,” and there is light. God says, “Let the waters be gathered together and let dry ground appear,” and it happens. God says, “Let the land be covered with vegetation,” and it happens.

Therefore, when God says, “Your sins are forgiven,” your sins truly are forgiven. When God says, “You are a citizen of the kingdom of heaven,” you are a citizen of the kingdom of heaven. When God says, “I have made you a member of my family,” we are indeed members of his family.

“As far as the east is from the west, so far does he remove our transgressions from us” (Psalm 103: 12). Send one traveler to the east, ands however long and far the traveler goes, there continues to be more east. Send another traveler to the west, and however long and far the traveler goes, there continues to be more west. The Earth has a North Pole and a South Pole, but east and west are infinitely far from each other. That is how far our sins have been removed from us—infinitely far.

Seen another way, our sins were nailed to the cross with Christ and killed with Christ (Romans 6:6). When Christ rose, he left our sins behind in the tomb; they remain dead and buried to this day. When God looks at me, he sees no sin. He sees perfection, for I have been clothed in the righteousness of Christ (Galatians 3:27).

Therefore, God no longer sees my sins. Jesus has taken away my sins, and God has deliberately forgotten them. As Jesus could deliberately forget the day and year of the Day of the Lord (Matthew 24:36) during his time on earth, so God purposely forgets our sins and treats us as worthy of his kingdom.

God has forgotten our sins, even though we remind him of those sins. We confess our sins to God and ask for his forgiveness, even though he has already promised to forgive and forget those sins. God does not need our confession, but we need confession. We need to remember that we are sinners, saved from sin only by the life and death of Jesus Christ. We need to remember the reason for his sacrifice, even though his sacrifice is sufficient to make our sins disappear from God’s memory, which means that they are truly gone.

John Chrysostom said it this way: “He that is penitent ought never to forget his sin, but on the one hand, to beseech God not to remember it; while on the other, he himself never forgets it. If we remember it, God will forget it.” God is so powerful that, when he forgets something, it no longer exists. In this way, each of us knows something that God no longer remembers. J.

Seven Mysteries of the Christian Faith–Chapter one: the mystery of the Holy Trinity

Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God the Lord is one (Deuteronomy 6:4).

The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all (II Corinthians 13:14).

Who is God? The first and greatest mystery of the Christian faith is the identity of the God whom Christians worship. God’s people have always declared that God is one. Christians identify the one God as three Persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. (Until the twentieth century, the Holy Spirit was more generally known as the Holy Ghost, but most English-speaking Christians today prefer to call him the Holy Spirit.)

Jews and Muslims agree with Christians that God is one. The three religions further agree that the one God is timeless and unchanging. He is eternal, not subject to the laws of time. He is present everywhere, and he knows everything, and he can do anything he wants. He is the Creator of everything that exists, and he has the right to rule everything that exists. He has the right to tell people what to do and what not to do, and he has the right to punish people who break his rules. Further, Jews and Christians and Muslims agree that God has spoken to his people through special messengers that are known in all three religions as prophets.

Jews and Muslims do not accept the mystery of the Holy Trinity. They insist that Christians are worshiping three gods instead of one God, and they further believe that the one God is insulted by the Christian teaching of the Trinity. Many Christians, in their speaking of God and to God, often speak as if they did believe in three gods rather than one God. Because it is easier to think of the three Persons as distinct beings rather than one Being, we often forget or overlook the unity of God. We betray this misunderstanding whenever we speak of the three Persons of God as “them” instead of “him,” or whenever our prayers and hymns address the three Persons individually but neglect to speak to the one God who consists of those three Persons.

(I need to pause here to address the apparent maleness of God. Only God the Son has taken on human form. The Father and the Spirit have no body, so technically the Father and the Spirit are neither male nor female. In this book, as in all my writing and speaking and thinking about God, I use the traditional male words for God. I do this for three reasons: the prophets and apostles who wrote the Bible consistently used male pronouns and descriptions of God; when the Son of God became human, he chose to be male rather than female; and in many places the Bible hints that the relationship God has with his people is pictured by the marriage of a man and a woman, in which God takes the role of a husband and his people take the role of his wife.)

That the three Persons of God are one Being, one God, rather than three beings, is a paradox. Not only is God greater than time and space, his nature appears to run counter to the very rules of mathematics. Whenever God’s people try to understand the mysteries and paradoxes of the Christian faith through reason and logic, they produce ideas that are contrary to what the prophets and apostles said about God. The early Church referred to these misunderstandings as heresies. People were heretics, not because they opposed God or were trying to change Christianity, but because they were trying to understand God and the things he said. Heretics were opposed by councils and teachers of the early Church, not as evil enemies, but as sincere people who made the mistake of trusting their own minds and thoughts more than they trusted the messages of God’s prophets and apostles.

To counter the idea that the Persons are three gods, some Christians explained that “Father, Son, and Holy Spirit” are three job titles for the same person. When dealing with creation, Jesus expresses himself as the Father. When dealing with salvation, the rescue of sinners, Jesus expresses himself as the Son. When dealing with faith and Christian living, Jesus expresses himself as the Holy Spirit. Since it is always the same God, they reasoned, it is always the same person. In a similar way, a man might be a son, a husband, a father, a laborer, a writer, a friend, and a neighbor. He is all seven of those things, but he is not seven men; he is one man doing seven different things.

The problem with that logical explanation is that the three Persons who are God relate to each other in a way that a man with several tasks does not relate to himself. Some people talk to themselves and a few even answer, but when Jesus prayed, he was not talking to himself. He was speaking to his Father, and his Father heard and answered his prayer. Furthermore, the father aspect of my life is not going to send the writer aspect of my life anywhere. I go to the store, but I do not send myself to the store. The Bible says that God sent Jesus into the world to rescue sinners. It says that Jesus sent the Holy Spirit to his Church. This sending was not leaving and then returning under a different name. It reflects a relationship of the three Persons. The Father loves the Son. The Son loves the Father. They both love the Holy Spirit, and the Holy Spirit loves them both. This love is not God loving himself; this is genuine love that is shared among the three Persons who together are one God.

Another logical explanation for the mystery of the Trinity is that only the Father is truly God; the Son and the Holy Spirit are something less than God. Sometimes Jesus is described as a wise and devout man, a prophet and a teacher, who told people about God. Sometimes he is described as a man who was adopted by God the Father and made holy and perfect. Sometimes Jesus is regarded as the first thing the Father created and the means by which the Father made the rest of the universe. Likewise, the Holy Spirit is sometimes seen as a force or power that comes from God rather than a Person.

Once again, this logical explanation does not match what God says about himself. Jesus has the power to forgive sins. Jesus will judge all people at the end of time. Jesus knows everything, and there is nothing he cannot do. He promises to be with all his people, which means he is able to be everywhere. The Bible tells God’s people to worship only God and no one else, but Jesus is worshiped. Jesus is eternal and unchanging, but only God is eternal and unchanging.

There is only one God. The Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God. There is only one Lord. The Father is Lord, the Son is Lord, and the Holy Spirit is Lord. There is only one uncreated, eternal, and unchanging Being. The Father is uncreated, eternal, and unchanging; the Son is uncreated, eternal, and unchanging; the Holy Spirit is uncreated, eternal, and unchanging.

Conspiracy theorists claim that the doctrine of the Holy Trinity was invented by church leaders three centuries after Jesus died and rose from the dead. Because the word “Trinity” is not in the Bible, they claim that the idea of the Trinity was invented by human beings and is not in the Bible. Yet from beginning to end, the Bible gives evidence that God is three Persons while remaining one God.

The Hebrew word “El” is the generic word for God; like the English word “god” it can refer to the true God, to false gods, or to other beings with God-like authority. When referring to the true God, however, the Hebrew Bible often uses the word “Elohim,” which is plural. Aside from the mystery of the Trinity, it is hard to explain why the Bible would use a plural noun for the one God. God also talks to himself in the plural: “Let us make man in our image,” for example, and “Let us go down and see what they are doing” in Babylon. These are not final arguments, but they are evidence that the idea of the Trinity was known even to Moses and the prophets.

Moses often speaks of the Lord, the Angel of the Lord, and the Spirit of the Lord. The Angel of the Lord often says things and does things that can only be said and done by the true God. On the day that Abraham prepared to sacrifice Isaac, the Angel of the Lord spoke to him and said, “Now I know that you fear God, seeing you have not withheld your son, your only son, from me” (Genesis 22:12). He then speaks a blessing that can come only from the true God. On Mount Sinai the Angel of the Lord spoke to Moses from a burning bush, identifying himself as “the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob” (Exodus 3:6). He also identifies himself with the name Yahweh (or Jehovah) which means “I am,” a significant reminder that the true God is uncreated, eternal, and unchanging.

God spoke to many people and was seen by many people. Not only did Abraham and Moses see God, but Jacob wrestled with God, and Isaiah saw God seated on a throne in the Temple. Yet John writes, “No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the Father’s side, he has made him known” (John 1:18). From this we know that Jesus (not God the Father) ate with Abraham, wrestled with Jacob, spoke with Moses, and was seen by Isaiah.

The Psalms often depict the Father-Son relationship within the Holy Trinity. Psalm 2 describes the Messianic King and says, “The Lord said to me, ‘You are my Son; today I have begotten you’” (Psalm 2:7); another Messianic Psalm says, “The Lord says to my Lord, ‘Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool’” (Psalm 110:1). The prophets often said that they were guided by the Spirit of the Lord in their messages.

Jesus frequently spoke of the Father and of himself as distinct Persons, yet on the night when he was betrayed, he said, “Whoever has seen me has seen the Father” (John 14:9) and, “Believe me that I am in the Father and he is in me” (John 14:11). Earlier he had said, “I and the Father are one” (John 10:30). Jesus also told his apostles to baptize in the name—not the names—of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

Many more verses could be quoted from the epistles to demonstrate the fact that the apostles knew only one God, but knew the Father to be God and knew Jesus to be God. Perhaps the most important verse about the unity and the Trinity of God is often overlooked: “God is love” (I John 4:8). The Bible says that God is almighty, but it never says that God is Power. The Bible says that God knows everything, but it never says that God is Knowledge. The Bible calls God holy but not Holiness, good but not Goodness, eternal but not Eternity. Yet the Bible does say that God is love. Outside of space and outside of time, without any regard to creation, God is love—love is the very nature of God. Yet if God is only one Person, only one Being, he could not love anything but himself. God’s love, then, would be a selfish love and not true love. “God is love” because, outside of space and time, the Father loves the Son and the Spirit, the Son loves the Father and the Spirit, and the Spirit loves the Father and the Son. That love, like God himself, is eternal and unchanging. That love is the reason that God wants his people to love him and to love each other, because we were created in the image and likeness of God.

Christians have tried to find analogies in creation to talk about the Trinity, but most of them fall short of accuracy. Some have spoken of the apple, for the core and flesh and skin of the apple are all apple. Yet the parts of an apple are distinct in a way that the Persons of God are not distinct. Other Christians have spoken of water, which can be vapor, liquid, or ice. Only rarely, though, is the same water in all three conditions, as the Persons all are eternally God. Patrick, the missionary to Ireland, is said to have defended the teaching of the Trinity by pointing to a shamrock and asking if it is one leaf or three leaves. When his Irish listeners could not agree among themselves about the shamrock, Patrick supposedly said, “How can you understand the Creator if you cannot even understand a small part of what he created?”

God is best understood by knowing what he says about himself. The names of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit were not invented by people to talk about God; they are used by the prophets and apostles to talk about God. In the Father-Son relationship we find, not an analogy for the nature of God, but a description of God’s basic nature. People and animals in their families are pictures of God, not the other way around. Because people and animals exist in time, fathers come before sons and are greater than their sons (at least while the sons are still children). Because the Trinity exists beyond time, the Father and the Son are equal in power, authority, and glory. Jesus is begotten of the Father (as all children are begotten by fathers and conceived by mothers), but he has always existed. In other words, the Son is being continually begotten by his Father. (“Today I have begotten you” signifies not one particular day in human history but the eternal today of God’s experience.) He honors and respects his Father as human children are expected to honor and respect their parents, even when they are no longer children. The fact that he submits to the will of his Father does not mean that he is less than his Father in power and authority; in fact, the submission of Jesus shows that he is equal to his Father. Otherwise he would not submit; he would by nature be forced to honor and obey his Father.

The Holy Spirit is neither created nor begotten, but he proceeds. Eastern churches, such as the Russian Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church, teach that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father. Western churches, including the Roman Catholic Church and Protestant churches, teach that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. In either case, he is eternally proceeding as the Son is eternally begotten. No one aside from God can understand what that means, but Christians believe it because it matches what the Bible says about the Trinity.

Christians often distinguish the three Persons of the Trinity by what they do. God the Father is described as the Maker of heaven and earth and all that exists aside from God. God the Son is recognized as Jesus, the Redeemer who entered creation to rescue creation from the forces of evil. God the Holy Spirit is known as the Person who grants faith to Christians and strengthens them to live as God’s people.

On the other hand, John writes that “All things were made through him [Jesus], and without him was not anything made that was made” (John 1:3). Paul wrote that “by him [Jesus] all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible” (Colossians 1:16). Moses wrote that, at the time of creation, “The Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters” (Genesis 1:2). All three Persons of the Holy Trinity were involved in creating the universe.

Only the Son of God became human, lived, died, and rose again to redeem sinners and rescue the world. Yet the Father was involved in redemption because he sent his Son, and the Holy Spirit is involved in redemption by strengthening Jesus for his rescue mission and by drawing people to Jesus. All three Persons of the Holy Trinity are involved in redeeming sinners.

Paul wrote, “No one can say ‘Jesus is Lord’ except in the Holy Spirit” (I Corinthians 12:3). When Peter confessed his faith that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, Jesus replied, “flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven” (Matthew 16:17). All three Persons of the Holy Trinity are involved in granting faith and guiding Christians in their lives.

It seems at times as though the Holy Spirit is the forgotten Person of the Holy Trinity. The apostles wrote much about the Father and the Son but did not mention the Holy Spirit as often. Christians talk more about the Father and the Son than they talk about the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit apparently wants this to happen. His goal is not to draw attention to himself, but to draw people to Jesus. When people hear about the redeeming work of Jesus, the Holy Spirit is present and active in the message. One might say that the Holy Spirit is truly humble, wanting Christians to talk about the Son of God and not about the Holy Spirit.

When Christians are talking about Jesus, though, the Holy Spirit is active in their speaking. When Christians read the Bible, they are reading the words written by apostles and prophets who were guided by the Holy Spirit. When Christians gather together in the name of Jesus, Jesus is present as he promised (Matthew 18:20), and the Holy Spirit is also present. The three Persons of the Holy Trinity are present, for God the Father is known only through Jesus (John 1:18).

The prophets and apostles wrote about gifts from the Holy Spirit, and sometimes Christians wonder about those gifts. Various abilities are described as spiritual gifts, and the Bible makes it clear that not every Christian receives the same gifts (I Corinthians 12:4-27). How does a Christian recognize his or her spiritual gifts? Any ability that a Christian has that serves other Christians and helps the mission of the Church (which is to draw people to Jesus) can be considered a spiritual gift. Some Christians think that their spiritual gifts should be different from those talents and abilities they have already received through creation by God the Father. Such a distinction should not be made, since the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit are one God, not three gods.

No one can fully understand the mystery of the Holy Trinity, aside from God himself. Christians believe this mystery to be true because God has revealed that truth to his people. With angels and with believers from Old Testament times and New Testament times, Christians join together singing “Holy, holy, holy,” to honor the one true God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.