“The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until Shiloh comes” (Genesis 49:10—read Genesis 49:8-12).
The book of Genesis is filled with pictures and promises about the Messiah. God’s Old Testament people knew they were waiting for a deliverer, one who would defeat their enemies and set them free from their sins. The enemies to be faced are sin and evil and death. Jesus won against these enemies by his sinless life, his sacrificial death, and his triumphant resurrection. These themes are illustrated by the obedience of Noah in building an ark, Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac, and Joseph’s rescue from death from the hand of his brothers, only to later forgive and rescue them, as well as many other depictions of the work of Jesus.
One repeated theme in Abraham’s family is that of the younger son receiving what belongs to his older brother. Isaac receives the inheritance and blessing that, by law, should have been given to Ishmael. Jacob robs his brother Esau of his birthright and his blessing. Reuben was the first-born son of Jacob, but Joseph receives the double-portion belonging to the eldest son—he has two tribes in Israel, Ephraim and Mannaseh. Judah, not Reuben, carries on the family blessing that will produce the Messiah. Even Ephraim is placed by Jacob ahead of Joseph’s older son, Manasseh. Each time the oldest son is cheated, we see a picture of God’s only-begotten Son being cheated of justice and of life itself so sinners like us can receive the rewards Jesus earned by his obedience.
Therefore, Jacob prophecies the royal family that will come from the tribe of Judah. This family began to rule in the person of David, but David was only a forerunner of the coming Messiah. Matthew opens his Gospel by tracing the family tree of Jesus from Abraham through Isaac, Jacob, and Judah, and on to David and his royal descendants. Thus, Jesus is both the son of Abraham and the son of David, with all the promise and all the authority those titles suggest.
“Until Shiloh comes” is a phrase that has puzzled translators and interpreters for centuries. “Until tribute comes to him” is found in one translation; “until it comes to whom it belongs” is another. Within the Hebrew word Shiloh is a suggestion not only of tribute, but also of rest and peace. This prophecy anticipates the coming of Jesus, the One to whom all tribute should be given, but also the Prince of Peace. Inheriting the throne of David, Jesus also says that “all authority in heaven and earth has been given to” him (Matthew 28:18). He rules, not just the nation Israel, but also the entire universe. God the Father “put all things under his feet and gave him as head over all things to the Church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all” (Ephesians 1:22-23. Thanks be to God! J.